Shelf Sea Biogeochemistry
The shelf Sea are highly productive compared to the open ocean, a productivity that underpins more than 90 per cent of global fisheries. Their importance to society extends beyond food production to include issues of biodiversity, carbon cycling and storage, waste disposal, nutrient cycling, recreation and renewable energy resources.
The shelf Sea have been estimated to be the most valuable biome on Earth, but they are under considerable stress, as a result of anthropogenic nutrient loading, overfishing, habitat disturbance, climate change and other impacts.
However, even within the relatively well-studied European shelf Sea, fundamental biogeochemical processes are poorly understood. For example: the role of shelf Sea in carbon storage; in the global cycles of key nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon and iron); and in determining primary and secondary production, and thereby underpinning the future delivery of many other ecosystem services.
Improved knowledge of such factors is not only required by marine policy-makers; it also has the potential to increase the quality and cost-effectiveness of management decisions at the local, national and international levels under conditions of climate change.
The Shelf Sea Biogeochemistry research programme is co-funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) and the Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra). The programme directly relates to the delivery of the NERC Earth system science theme. The programme will take a holistic approach to the cycling of nutrients and carbon and the controls on primary and secondary production in UK and European shelf Sea, to increase understanding of these processes and their role in wider biogeochemical cycles. It will thereby significantly improve predictive marine biogeochemical and ecosystem models over a range of scales.
The scope of the programme includes exchanges with the open ocean (transport on and off the shelf to a depth of around 500m), together with cycling, storage and release processes on the shelf slope, and air-sea exchange of greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O).